La preservación del procesamiento sintáctico en la vejez normal y su relación con la memoria procedimental y de trabajo

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29344/0717621X.49.3561

Palabras clave:

procesamiento sintático, adulto mayor normal, memoria de trabajo, memoria procedimental, psicolinguistica

Resumen

El funcionamiento del lenguaje no es monolítico a lo largo de la vida de los hablantes. Aunque existe consenso respecto de qué aspectos del procesamiento léxico varían en la vejez normal, la evidencia es divergente en relación al procesamiento sintáctico: este se deterioraría dada su vinculación con la memoria de trabajo (MT) o se preservaría dada su relación con la memoria procedimental (MP). En este marco, el objetivo de este estudio fue describir el procesamiento sintáctico de los adultos mayores normales y su relación con la MP y la MT. Para ello se diseñó un estudio experimental con participantes entre 65-75 años y jóvenes entre 20-30 años. Se aplicó un test de tiempo de reacción serial para medir la MP, la subprueba de dígitos inversos y de secuenciación de la Escala IV de Inteligencia de Wechsler para medir la MT, una tarea de priming estructural y una tarea de distancia lineal para medir el procesamiento sintáctico. Se realizaron seis análisis estadísticos inferenciales: una correlación entre MP y el priming estructural (rs=.335; p=.005), y una correlación entre la MT y la distancia lineal (rs=.135; p=.154). Luego, un análisis comparativo entre ambos grupos: en el rendimiento de la memoria procedimental (t=.360; p=.721), en la tarea de priming estructural (t=.360; p=0.721) y en la tarea de distancia lineal (W=531.0; p=.051), a partir del cual no se encontraron diferencias significativas. Solo se detectó un mayor rendimiento en el grupo de los jóvenes en la tarea de MT (U=608.500; p=.004; r=.399). Se concluye que, con independencia de la edad de los sujetos, el procesamiento sintáctico se preservaría, dada su relación con la MP, y que la retención e integración de la información léxica dispuesta linealmente no es relevante para el procesamiento sintáctico y que este se asociaría a un fenómeno propio del procesamiento de jerarquías y dependencias estructurales.

Biografía del autor/a

Eugenia Rivieri, Universidad Andres Bello

Argentina. Doctora en Lingüística. Académica de la Universidad Andres Bello. Facultad de Educación y Ciencias Sociales. ORCID: 0000-0002-9636-4014, e.rivieri@uandresbello.edu.

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2024-05-09

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Lingüística